1 Hawke Street

1 Hawke Street
West Melbourne VIC 3003

Also known as 611-617 King Street & 1-11 Hawke Street West Melbourne Source: MMWB map 1895
Previous Address Samuel John Marshall Chemical Co, (3 to 5) & (7 to 11) Source: PROV
Constructed (1st) 1853. (2nd) 1920 August
Style Inter-War Period : 1915 – 1940
Architect (1st) Thomas Stevens. (2nd) James A Wood
Builder (1st) Thomas Stevens. (2nd) Able Peters

Timelapse Building Images

Prior to 1920 the original 6 timber cottages advertised for sale by Thomas Stevens in 1854, three of the original six have been replaced by current 1920s S. J. Marshall building.

Melbourne Council Rate books


Noel P. Hunt & Co. Pty. Limited, textile machinery merchants, factory premises, 1-11 Hawke St., Melbourne.

Harold Paynting Collection, State Library of Victoria. Fowler, Lyle 1891-1969 photographer

Land Details

Consolidated Crown Lands map and MMBW map 1895. source: http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/

Building Details

From as early as 1853 to 1920, 1 to 11 Hawke street had timber residential dwellings on them.

Ground floor plan showing production laboratory at 1 Hawke Street West Melbourne.

Public Records Office of Victoria

The 23 page specification required first grade materials and included two internal jarrah staircases and all interior surfaces to be white limewash.

Public Records Office of Victoria

To the Building Surveyor of the city of Melbourne.

I do hereby give notice that I intend to make alterations to my Kitchen at no.1 Hawke & King Street.

I am to be the builder of the works to be executed and that the said work will begin on the 1st of November 1879.

Dated this 31st day of October 1879.
Archibald Downie

Source: Public Record Office of Victoria

Subsequent Building Alterations

1853 The Argus.
DESIRABLE PROPERTY  in North Melbourne, near the Benevolent Asylum.—The undersigned an instructed to offer for Sale by private contract, the following very desirable Property, situated in North Melbourne, consisting of Six, Six-roomed Houses, with detached kitchens, each having a frontage of 46 feet to either Hawk-street or King-street, just at the junction of these streets with Victoria-street, opposite the Benevolent Asylum.
This property is most desirably situated in a most healthy aad elevated position, and commands extensive views of the shipping in the Bay, and of all the surrounding districts.
The houses are all faithfully built under the immediate inspection of the proprietor, who has spared no expense in their finish.
They are weatherboard houses, plastered and papered inside, and roofed with galvanized iron tiles; and the undersigned feel great
confidence in calling the attention of parties looking out either for the purposes of investment, or those desiring to escape the high existing rents, to this valuable property.
They will be sold either in one lot or separately, and liberal terms will be accorded.
Further particulars may be learned at the Auction Mart in Elizabeth-street.   W. M. TENNENT and CO., Auctioneers.
[Thomas Stevens original allotment that contained the above six dwellings was 133′ facing Hawke Street and 163′ facing King Street in area. The part on the corner prior to S. J. Marshall building had three timber dwellings. Two facing King, both 29′ wide by 39′ deep and one timber dwelling facing Hawke Street was 38′ wide and 56′ deep. The largest dwelling of Thomas Stevens buildings originally faced Hawke Street, the allotment was 56′ wide and 160′ deep, built beside Colin Campbell’s home.]

The Argus 1853

Architectural Features

    No Entries Found

Heritage Significance and Listings

Heritage Listings and Explanatory Notes

Level of significance: Registered as contributory

Statement of Significance

What is significant?
The former S. J. Marshall building is a two-story brick and bluestone building. It contains fabric from several different periods of building and alteration. The earliest section dates from 1921 era, while the addition of the King street side entry way, its overhang and windows were made towards the end of the 1980’s. A 1960’s photograph of the building showed main entry way on Hawke Street side and 9 pane window glazing treatment to the ground and first floor level, but these have since been removed and replaced with single pane sheets of glass.

How is it significant?
The former S. J. Marshall building is of historical and architectural significance to the State of Victoria.

Why is it significant?
The former S. J. Marshall building is of historical significance as one of the early 20th century examples of a commercial building and factory in the State. Its Hawke Street façade contains stylistic monument parapet elements from the post ww1 era when Australian manufacturing began to grow and prosper rapidly.

The factory proper dates from 1920 and provides important evidence of the character of early 20th century industrial organisation in Melbourne. The S. J. Marshall building was established in the wake of post-world war one returning solder boom where metropolitan growth benefited from the introduction of new manufacturing which had become an important part of the economy. Manufacturing industry’s significance as an employer compared highly to other more traditional agricultural and mining based sectors of the working population in Australia at that period of time.

The S. J. Marshall building and later known as Noel P. Hunt & Co Limited was one of the few new era mechanised 20th century manufacturers and has been credited with introducing advanced overseas technology to Victoria. Although there have been some external changes to the building over the years, the essential design and structure of the complex provide a substantially intact representation of contemporary factory design and working conditions, and of aspects of 20th century building technology. All bricks used in construction were of first quality machine made and laid in English bond with every brick and each course flushed up and grouted with mortar. All exposed joints inside and outside were finished with a neat flat struck joint. Corbel out brickwork that form cement molds and cornice, also under top mold to pediments. Two Jarrah staircases to first floor. Cement on inside and outside faces all over lintels and doors, windows and louvre openings and color all lintels on external faces and all cement molds on elevations to King and Hawke Streets with two coats of No. 212 Indelliblo. Lime whiten in two coats the whole of the internal brickwork, including stair wells, laboratory and brick closets and air lock also all joists and underside of flooring to first floor.

The Former S. J. Marshall building is of historical significance as evidence of the character of Melbourne’s early manufacturing development. The combination of showroom, factory and scientific laboratory is a reminder of a time when the city was much more forward thinking for that period post the 19th century and new ideas were being embraced more into the workplace. The building also demonstrates the long-term continuity of industrial usage in this part of North and West Melbourne.

The S. J. Marshall building is of historical significance for its associations with the notable S. J. Marshall, A. J. Wood and Noel P. Hunt & Co Limited. S. J. Marshall was a prominent and well-respected member of the Manufacturing Chemists Board of Victoria, he owned the site prior to 1920 and established the current building there in 1920. He engaged A. J. Wood architect to design and oversea the construction of the building. It is important to note the influence that A. J. Wood had on Melbourne’s Architecture at that time. Educated at Scotch College, Mr. Wood was a member of the architects’ registration board and upon retirement in 1932 from 40 years of service both privately and for State Public Works department as chief architect, he was widely known by leaders of the building industry in the State. Amongst some of the outstanding works controlled and supervised by Mr. Wood were the Mont Park Mental Hospital, the Emily McPherson School of Domestic Economy and the University High School in Parkville. A later occupant of the building after the 1950’s and listed in the encyclopedia of Australian Science, Noel P. Hunt was established in 1921 and offered custom-made machines, including fabric-inspection and fabric-rolling equipment nationwide.

The Former S. J. Marshall building is of architectural significance because of its interesting window treatment (although it has subsequently been altered, it is restorable) and as part of a coherent early-20th century commercial streetscape which gives some idea of the architectural character of Melbourne in the post-world war one period.

Construction dates: 1920, & later alterations post 1980’s


Contextual History: History of Place:
This building was specifically built to accommodate manufacturing, as evidenced by the provision of natural light and ventilation and using timber lining in the internal finishes to improve insulation and reduce dust. The building showed quite advanced industrial organisation, which is interesting for its post-world war one time era.

Associated People:
Samuel John ‘S. J.’ Marshall
Archer John ‘A. J.’ Wood
Noel P. Hunt


From To Owner More Info Data Source
2018 new owner – to be advised…
2011 2018 Goldsmiths Lawyers https://www.realestateview.com.au/property-360/property/613-king-street-west-melbourne-vic-3003/
1974 Alfonso and Anna Benincasa Melbourne Council Rate books
1944 1973 Noel P Hunt Pty Ltd Melbourne Council Rate books
1927 1943 Harold Ernest Barry Melbourne Council Rate books
1920 1927 Samuel John Marshall Melbourne Council Rate books
1918 1920 Daniel J Triffle Melbourne Council Rate books
1914 1918 George & Thomas Arthur Melbourne Council Rate books
1910 1913 Alfred Shipway Melbourne Council Rate books
1894 1910 Bank of NSW Melbourne Council Rate books
1888 1892 Arnold Agsal Melbourne Council Rate books
1873 1888 Archibald Donnie [sic] Downie Melbourne Council Rate books
1855 1872 Peter Wilson Melbourne Council Rate books
1853 1854 Thomas Stevens http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/?_ga=2.246712588.988190837.1574492910-1620111993.1571808682 Compiled Crown Record Plan.
1837 1853 Crown Land https://guides.slv.vic.gov.au/victorianancestors/land Land under ‘general law’
abt 40 thousand years earlier 1837 Boon Wurrung and Woiwurrung (Wurundjeri) peoples of the Kulin Nation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Victoria#Aboriginal_history Aboriginal history


From To Resident More Info Data Source
to date Private source Hatcher Index
1854 1855 William Waterhouse (first door from the corner) Melbourne Council Rate books
1854 John West (second door down from the corner) Melbourne Council Rate books

Social History

The advent of mechanization provided manufacturing jobs for soldiers returning home from world war one.

A Melbourne chemist, Samuel John Marshall purchased 1-11 Hawke Street, to build a medicine manufacturing facility. The building was designed by architect, James A Wood designer of University High School.

It was built by Able Peters in 1920 at a cost of £2,400 and included a chemical laboratory on the ground floor and administrative offices and showroom upstairs.

Samuel John Marshall formulated and manufactured Rayes Balsam cough syrup for over 30 years.

In 1925 half of the building was sublet to Cellular Clothing Company. In 1939 these tenants relocated to a larger purpose-built factory in Milton Street North Melbourne.

Growth of Melbourne Factory.
With the building of the new factory of Cellular Clothing Co. Ltd. begins a new chapter in the development of an Important Australian industry. – The manufacture of the cellular cloth and garments which are sold tinder the trade name – Aertex began in England about fifty years ago. Aertex, a British invention, is a woven fabric, designed on a cellular pattern, which permits free circulation of air through the material. For many years the material was imported into Australia for manufacture into garments here by various Arms, but in 1021 the English company sent Mr. T. Pago to establish a factory for the manufacture ‘of Aertex – in Melbourne. The factory was opened at Hawke street, West Melbourne, with Mr. Page as manager and a staff of twelve operatives; including two expert machinists from the English factory. The demand for Aertex garments in Australia grew to such proportions that about four years ago larger premises” were scoured in William street, and the new factory, facing Milton street, more than doubles the size of the company’s premises. About fifty hands are now employed, and with the increasing demand for Aertex garments throughout Australia further additions to staff and plant may be expected. Aertex garments are sold in all parts of the world, the whole of the Commonwealth’s demands being supplied from the Melbourne factory of Cellular clothing Co. Ltd.
Besides under wear, the material is used for the manufacture of socks, pyjamas, braces, caps, waistcoats, sheets, linings for boots and shoes, underlinings for waterproof coats, and for many other purposes. These goods arc made ‘from cotton fabrics, but other articles, such as blankets, are made from Aertex fabric of wool. Machinery is being installed in the Melbourne factory for the manufacture of a special type of Aertex, which is knitted from Sea Island cotton a material of exceptional softness and elasticity.’

In 1940, 1-11 Hawke Street was sold to Noel P Hunt Pty Ltd, an engineering and manufacturing company who offered custom made machines, including fabric-inspection and rolling equipment. They were also commissioned by Melbourne Council to supply and install traffic lights at busy CBD intersections.

In 1937 Noel P Hunt introduced reticulated air conditioning into Victoria.


Encyclopedia of Australian Science

In 1974 the building was purchased by Italian immigrants Alfonso and Anna Benincasa, who imported Italian textiles and were known for their fine Italian leather shoes.

The building was owned and occuped by Goldsmith Lawyers until 2018.

Context and Streetscape


This property is located within the municipality of the City of Melbourne. We respectfully acknowledge it is on the traditional land of the Kulin Nation.
source: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/history-city-of-melbourne.pdf
historical map source: https://www.slv.vic.gov.au/search-discover/explore-collections-format/maps/maps-melbourne-city-suburbs

This information must be verified with the relevant planning or heritage authority.


Hawke Street and the surrounding streetscapes in part, were indirectly influenced by news about the discovery of Gold by Dunlop and Regan in Victoria at Poverty Point, Ballarat in 1851. News of that find led to a great influx of migrants arriving in old Melbourne, seeking fortune and a better life, but housing in old Melbourne was in short supply. The sheer volume of arrivals led to pressure on authorities to expand the size of the colonial settlement, described by Albert Mattingley in his recollections of The Early History of North Melbourne, in 1916.

In 1852, government surveyor Charles Laing’s ‘Plan of the City of Melbourne and its Extension Northwards’ helped alleviate dramatically the pressure for more housing.

Vacant building allotments were pegged, surveyed, and allocated for sale towards the north, on La-Trobe, Adderley, Jeffcott, Spencer, Batman, King, Dudley, Rosslyn, Stanley, Roden and Hawke Street. Blocks of land were auctioned, with Hawke Street land first offered for sale in May, 1853.

By October 1853, W.M. Tennent wrote in the Argus newspaper:

 “Hawke Street is most desirably situated, is in a most healthy and elevated position and commands extensive views of the shipping in the bay and of all surrounding districts”

The race to be the first to have an influence on Hawke streetscape was won in July 1853 by Scotsman, Colin Campbell, who created two stone and brick rendered dwellings and a timber workshop at 19, 21 and 23 Hawke. He was quickly followed a week later by Thomas Stevens who built four wooden cottages on the corner of Hawke and King Streets. Steven’s wooden dwellings were later replaced in 1920 by S. J. Marshall’s architect- designed pharmaceutical laboratory while Campbell’s buildings were demolished in 1972 when the three-storey red brick Miami hotel was created in their place.

In the 1890s, the Hawke residential streetscape began to slowly change with the introduction of industry. The largest of the early industrial buildings that had moved out of Melbourne’s CBD, made its new home on the corner of Hawke and Adderley Streets.  It was designed by architects Oakden, Addison & Kemp and built in 1889 by John Dunton for Brisco & Co. who were cast iron merchants of Elizabeth Street Melbourne.

At the most southern end, an 1868 resident and engineer, Gideon James, and his wife Catherine, once lived at 207 Hawke while Gideon operated the Avon Tool Works business located next door at 199 Hawke until 1909. Their double- fronted Victorian home and garden and nearby workshop both were demolished in the 1920s and replaced by a two-storey red brick industrial building that has since been converted into 12 townhouses.

The southern end of the Hawke streetscape in the late 1860s was also home to a handful of important greengrocer and butcher shops. Among their owners were names such as James Ibbetson, William Wood, and Mrs. Mary Ann Smith.

In 1881, the streetscape continued to change with the arrival of Miss. J. Hutchinson’s mantle & underclothing factory at 96 Hawke, and Francis Gillman, who lived and operated a boot factory at 62 Hawke. The streetscape continued evolving when both Victorian period homes and workshops were demolished and replaced Number 96 is now a park and number 62 is a modern red and cream brick construction built in the 1980s.

Following World War Two, the Hawke streetscape received a rush of extra industrial buildings, from the Spencer Street corner southwards. These factories made all manner of items from electric batteries to spark plugs and baby carriages, marketed nationwide.

In 1895, the street contained 89 Victorian era dwellings. Seven Federation dwellings followed soon after. As of 2022, Hawke Street has lost 43 heritage dwellings, removed from its streetscape forever.

Without stronger heritage protection laws, by the year 2150, the number of heritage dwellings in this streetscape potentially could face total obliteration.

The remaining historic dwellings on Hawke Street are important to the area because they are socially and historically significant buildings that retain private back yard gardens and they relate directly to the early development of West Melbourne.

The Hawke streetscape today contains a collection of outstanding Victorian and Federation dwellings, which are a particularly well-preserved group from important architectural periods in time. These dwellings are interspersed by some industrial buildings, with two early hotels predominantly on the southern side south of the Hawke and Spencer Street intersection.

The North and West Melbourne Precinct is of historical, social, and aesthetic/architectural significance to the local residents and to the City of Melbourne. It is of historical significance, as a predominantly Victorian-era precinct associated with the nineteenth century growth of Melbourne to its north and west.

The residents living in the heritage dwellings along the streetscape are impacted by a push to increase residential density through conversions of the two to three storey red brick industrial buildings into six to eight story blocks of flats, blocks that offer little or no onsite car parking or onsite garden space.

It is imperative existing heritage regulations within the wider built environment be strengthened and laws be strictly followed. All development that occurs in future on Hawke Street ought to be architecturally respectful of the existing style, low scale heights and the hand-crafted materials utilised in keeping with the historic style.

Some might say the residents of Hawke Street and the surrounding streets of greater Melbourne owe a debt of gratitude to the wise Victorian settlers who created the beautiful terrace homes found along these streetscapes of today.

Other Information


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