1 Hawke Street

1 Hawke Street
West Melbourne VIC 3003

Also known as 611-617 King Street & 1-11 Hawke Street West Melbourne Source: MMWB map 1895
Previous Address Samuel John Marshall Chemical Co, (3 to 5) & (7 to 11) Source: PROV
Constructed 1920 August
Style Inter-War Period : 1915 – 1940
Architect James A Wood
Builder Able Peters

Timelapse Building Images

Prior to 1920 the original 6 lot divisions have been superimposed on current building, it is thought the buildings would have been single story wooden houses.

Melbourne Council Rate books


Noel P. Hunt & Co. Pty. Limited, textile machinery merchants, factory premises, 1-11 Hawke St., Melbourne.

Harold Paynting Collection, State Library of Victoria. Fowler, Lyle 1891-1969 photographer

Land Details

Consolidated Crown Lands map and MMBW map 1895. source: http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/

Building Details

From as early as 1853 to 1920, 1 to 11 Hawke street had timber residential dwellings on them.

Ground floor plan showing production laboratory at 1 Hawke Street West Melbourne.

Public Records Office of Victoria

The 23 page specification required first grade materials and included two internal jarrah staircases and all interior surfaces to be white limewash.

Public Records Office of Victoria

To the Building Surveyor of the city of Melbourne.

I do hereby give notice that I intend to make alterations to my Kitchen at no.1 Hawke & King Street.

I am to be the builder of the works to be executed and that the said work will begin on the 1st of November 1879.

Dated this 31st day of October 1879.
Archibald Downie

Source: Public Record Office of Victoria

Subsequent Building Alterations

No Entries Found

Architectural Features

    No Entries Found

Heritage Significance and Listings

Heritage Listings and Explanatory Notes

Level of significance: Registered as contributory

Statement of Significance

What is significant?
The former S. J. Marshall building is a two-story brick and bluestone building. It contains fabric from several different periods of building and alteration. The earliest section dates from 1921 era, while the addition of the King street side entry way, its overhang and windows were made towards the end of the 1980’s. A 1960’s photograph of the building showed main entry way on Hawke Street side and 9 pane window glazing treatment to the ground and first floor level, but these have since been removed and replaced with single pane sheets of glass.

How is it significant?
The former S. J. Marshall building is of historical and architectural significance to the State of Victoria.

Why is it significant?
The former S. J. Marshall building is of historical significance as one of the early 20th century examples of a commercial building and factory in the State. Its Hawke Street façade contains stylistic monument parapet elements from the post ww1 era when Australian manufacturing began to grow and prosper rapidly.

The factory proper dates from 1920 and provides important evidence of the character of early 20th century industrial organisation in Melbourne. The S. J. Marshall building was established in the wake of post-world war one returning solder boom where metropolitan growth benefited from the introduction of new manufacturing which had become an important part of the economy. Manufacturing industry’s significance as an employer compared highly to other more traditional agricultural and mining based sectors of the working population in Australia at that period of time.

The S. J. Marshall building and later known as Noel P. Hunt & Co Limited was one of the few new era mechanised 20th century manufacturers and has been credited with introducing advanced overseas technology to Victoria. Although there have been some external changes to the building over the years, the essential design and structure of the complex provide a substantially intact representation of contemporary factory design and working conditions, and of aspects of 20th century building technology. All bricks used in construction were of first quality machine made and laid in English bond with every brick and each course flushed up and grouted with mortar. All exposed joints inside and outside were finished with a neat flat struck joint. Corbel out brickwork that form cement molds and cornice, also under top mold to pediments. Two Jarrah staircases to first floor. Cement on inside and outside faces all over lintels and doors, windows and louvre openings and color all lintels on external faces and all cement molds on elevations to King and Hawke Streets with two coats of No. 212 Indelliblo. Lime whiten in two coats the whole of the internal brickwork, including stair wells, laboratory and brick closets and air lock also all joists and underside of flooring to first floor.

The Former S. J. Marshall building is of historical significance as evidence of the character of Melbourne’s early manufacturing development. The combination of showroom, factory and scientific laboratory is a reminder of a time when the city was much more forward thinking for that period post the 19th century and new ideas were being embraced more into the workplace. The building also demonstrates the long-term continuity of industrial usage in this part of North and West Melbourne.

The S. J. Marshall building is of historical significance for its associations with the notable S. J. Marshall, A. J. Wood and Noel P. Hunt & Co Limited. S. J. Marshall was a prominent and well-respected member of the Manufacturing Chemists Board of Victoria, he owned the site prior to 1920 and established the current building there in 1920. He engaged A. J. Wood architect to design and oversea the construction of the building. It is important to note the influence that A. J. Wood had on Melbourne’s Architecture at that time. Educated at Scotch College, Mr. Wood was a member of the architects’ registration board and upon retirement in 1932 from 40 years of service both privately and for State Public Works department as chief architect, he was widely known by leaders of the building industry in the State. Amongst some of the outstanding works controlled and supervised by Mr. Wood were the Mont Park Mental Hospital, the Emily McPherson School of Domestic Economy and the University High School in Parkville. A later occupant of the building after the 1950’s and listed in the encyclopedia of Australian Science, Noel P. Hunt was established in 1921 and offered custom-made machines, including fabric-inspection and fabric-rolling equipment nationwide.

The Former S. J. Marshall building is of architectural significance because of its interesting window treatment (although it has subsequently been altered, it is restorable) and as part of a coherent early-20th century commercial streetscape which gives some idea of the architectural character of Melbourne in the post-world war one period.

Construction dates: 1920, & later alterations post 1980’s


Contextual History: History of Place:
This building was specifically built to accommodate manufacturing, as evidenced by the provision of natural light and ventilation and using timber lining in the internal finishes to improve insulation and reduce dust. The building showed quite advanced industrial organisation, which is interesting for its post-world war one time era.

Associated People:
Samuel John ‘S. J.’ Marshall
Archer John ‘A. J.’ Wood
Noel P. Hunt


From To Owner More Info Data Source
2018 new owner – to be advised…
2011 2018 Goldsmiths Lawyers https://www.realestateview.com.au/property-360/property/613-king-street-west-melbourne-vic-3003/
1974 Alfonso and Anna Benincasa Melbourne Council Rate books
1944 1973 Noel P Hunt Pty Ltd Melbourne Council Rate books
1927 1943 Harold Ernest Barry Melbourne Council Rate books
1920 1927 Samuel John Marshall Melbourne Council Rate books
1918 1920 Daniel J Triffle Melbourne Council Rate books
1914 1918 George & Thomas Arthur Melbourne Council Rate books
1910 1913 Alfred Shipway Melbourne Council Rate books
1894 1910 Bank of NSW Melbourne Council Rate books
1888 1892 Arnold Agsal Melbourne Council Rate books
1873 1888 Archibald Donnie [sic] Downie Melbourne Council Rate books
1853 1873 Thomas Stevens http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/?_ga=2.246712588.988190837.1574492910-1620111993.1571808682 Compiled Crown Record Plan.
1837 1873 Crown Land https://guides.slv.vic.gov.au/victorianancestors/land Land under ‘general law’
abt 40 thousand years earlier 1837 Boon Wurrung and Woiwurrung (Wurundjeri) peoples of the Kulin Nation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Victoria#Aboriginal_history Aboriginal history


No Entries Found

Social History

The advent of mechanization provided manufacturing jobs for soldiers returning home from world war one.

A Melbourne chemist, Samuel John Marshall purchased 1-11 Hawke Street, to build a medicine manufacturing facility. The building was designed by architect, James A Wood designer of University High School.

It was built by Able Peters in 1920 at a cost of £2,400 and included a chemical laboratory on the ground floor and administrative offices and showroom upstairs.

Samuel John Marshall formulated and manufactured Rayes Balsam cough syrup for over 30 years.

In 1925 half of the building was sublet to Cellular Clothing Company. In 1939 these tenants relocated to a larger purpose-built factory in Milton Street North Melbourne.

Growth of Melbourne Factory.
With the building of the new factory of Cellular Clothing Co. Ltd. begins a new chapter in the development of an Important Australian industry. – The manufacture of the cellular cloth and garments which are sold tinder the trade name – Aertex began in England about fifty years ago. Aertex, a British invention, is a woven fabric, designed on a cellular pattern, which permits free circulation of air through the material. For many years the material was imported into Australia for manufacture into garments here by various Arms, but in 1021 the English company sent Mr. T. Pago to establish a factory for the manufacture ‘of Aertex – in Melbourne. The factory was opened at Hawke street, West Melbourne, with Mr. Page as manager and a staff of twelve operatives; including two expert machinists from the English factory. The demand for Aertex garments in Australia grew to such proportions that about four years ago larger premises” were scoured in William street, and the new factory, facing Milton street, more than doubles the size of the company’s premises. About fifty hands are now employed, and with the increasing demand for Aertex garments throughout Australia further additions to staff and plant may be expected. Aertex garments are sold in all parts of the world, the whole of the Commonwealth’s demands being supplied from the Melbourne factory of Cellular clothing Co. Ltd.
Besides under wear, the material is used for the manufacture of socks, pyjamas, braces, caps, waistcoats, sheets, linings for boots and shoes, underlinings for waterproof coats, and for many other purposes. These goods arc made ‘from cotton fabrics, but other articles, such as blankets, are made from Aertex fabric of wool. Machinery is being installed in the Melbourne factory for the manufacture of a special type of Aertex, which is knitted from Sea Island cotton a material of exceptional softness and elasticity.’

In 1940, 1-11 Hawke Street was sold to Noel P Hunt Pty Ltd, an engineering and manufacturing company who offered custom made machines, including fabric-inspection and rolling equipment. They were also commissioned by Melbourne Council to supply and install traffic lights at busy CBD intersections.

In 1937 Noel P Hunt introduced reticulated air conditioning into Victoria.


Encyclopedia of Australian Science

In 1974 the building was purchased by Italian immigrants Alfonso and Anna Benincasa, who imported Italian textiles and were known for their fine Italian leather shoes.

The building was owned and occuped by Goldsmith Lawyers until 2018.

Context and Streetscape


Municipality: Melbourne


Heritage Overlay Numbers: HO3


Other Information

Copyright status: This work is in copyright.
Conditions of use: Use of this work allowed provided the creators name and Hotham History Project Inc are acknowledged.

If you or someone you know has any more to add either by old photos or stories of this area, please contact us today. Email info@hothamhistory.org.au