107 Hawke Street

107 Hawke Street
West Melbourne VIC 3003
source: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

Also known as Bute-house, a two story brick and bluestone Victorian family home.
Previous Address
Constructed (1st) 1868. (2nd) unknown
Style Early twenty first century 2000-2030
Architect (1st) William J. Ellis. (2nd) unknown.
Builder (1st) Mr. F. J. Tadgell of 23 Provost Street, North Melbourne. (2nd) unknown

Timelapse Building Images

2012

source: http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/


Land Details

Building Details

From 1862 until 1868 one William J. Ellis (perhaps a son) had a successful architectural partnership in Melbourne with J.E. Austin, two of their larger commissions being for the Royal Albert Mechanics Institute and the Post and Telegraph offices in East Collingwood (1866-67).

They mainly built houses, shops and hotels. This Ellis had his own practice from 1868 until the 1880s. His best-known surviving work is the original wing of the Fitzroy Town Hall, a temple form with a Corinthian portico.

https://trove.nla.gov.au/people/1487500?c=people


Subsequent Building Alterations

Around 2011 the current block of 27 flats were constructed on this site.

Under S18 and S18A of the Sudbdivision Act 1988 and previous Acts, Council may require a contribution of land and/or money to be paid.

  • PLAN OF SUBDIVISION NO. PS634064M
    The contribution type is Money, the contribution is 3.5% and the amount of $58,800 was paid on 2 Aug 2011.
    The status is Paid/Satisfied.The application number is TP-2011-150.
    Certification number is SA-2011-19, 101-107 Hawke Street, WEST MELBOURNE VIC 3003.

http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/

Architectural Features



    No Entries Found


Heritage Significance and Listings

Heritage Listings and Explanatory Notes

The 1870 Victorian home that once stood on this land was demolished after 1970.

Owners

From To Owner More Info Data Source
to date private source Hatcher Index
Mr. James Hemphill, first Crown land purchaser source: Hatcher Index
abt 40 thousand years earlier 1835 Boon Wurrung and Woiwurrung (Wurundjeri) peoples of the Kulin Nation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Victoria source: Hatcher Index

Residents

From To Resident More Info Data Source
to date Private source Hatcher Index
1970 1970 guest house source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1965 1965 N. Camilleri source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1960 1960 not available source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1945 1955 Mrs. Mary Hunter http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article187350245 source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1940 1940 Mrs. Thelma Cole source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1935 1935 Henry T. Clark source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1925 1930 John Killeen source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1915 1920 Patrick P. O’Loghlin source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1905 1910 John F. McCarthy source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1883 1900 David Herd http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article187620432 source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1878 1882 Collier McCracken source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1876 1877 Colin McCracken source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.
1870 1875 William Mather source: Sands & McDougall directory, transcribed by Stephen Hatcher.

Social History

The original 1868 Victorian terrace named Bute-house identified as a brick house of 6 rooms from the council rates book was located at number 107 Hawke Street West Melbourne was first owned by William and Agnes Mather née Tschentscher.

council rates book


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Seven years later in the 1876 council rates book shows Bute-house’s new owners were Collier M’Cracken and Margaret M’Cracken née Robinson of M’Cracken’s City Brewery, Melbourne.

VPRS 5708/ volume 15, record 1514


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McCracken’s City Brewery founded in 1851 on Collins Street, Melbourne, operated until 1907 when it became part of Carlton & United Breweries.
McCracken’s was the second largest and the oldest of the six independent breweries that formed Carlton & United Breweries.
A laneway named after the brewery still exists in Melbourne CBD today, alongside where the brewery once was.


Later the home was owned by David Herd and Jessie Herd née Birrell.

Melbourne council rate book, 1893, rate number 653, house number 107


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Context and Streetscape

Precinct

This property is located within the municipality of the City of Melbourne. We respectfully acknowledge it is on the traditional land of the Kulin Nation.
source: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/history-city-of-melbourne.pdf
historical map source: https://www.slv.vic.gov.au/search-discover/explore-collections-format/maps/maps-melbourne-city-suburbs

Zoning

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This information must be verified with the relevant planning or heritage authority.

Streetscape

Hawke Street and the surrounding streetscapes in part, were indirectly influenced by news about the discovery of Gold by Dunlop and Regan in Victoria at Poverty Point, Ballarat in 1851. News of that find led to a great influx of migrants arriving in old Melbourne, seeking fortune and a better life, but housing in old Melbourne was in short supply. The sheer volume of arrivals led to pressure on authorities to expand the size of the colonial settlement, described by Albert Mattingley in his recollections of The Early History of North Melbourne, in 1916.

In 1852, government surveyor Charles Laing’s ‘Plan of the City of Melbourne and its Extension Northwards’ helped alleviate dramatically the pressure for more housing.

Vacant building allotments were pegged, surveyed, and allocated for sale towards the north, on La-Trobe, Adderley, Jeffcott, Spencer, Batman, King, Dudley, Rosslyn, Stanley, Roden and Hawke Street. Blocks of land were auctioned, with Hawke Street land first offered for sale in May, 1853.

By October 1853, W.M. Tennent wrote in the Argus newspaper:

 “Hawke Street is most desirably situated, is in a most healthy and elevated position and commands extensive views of the shipping in the bay and of all surrounding districts”

The race to be the first to have an influence on Hawke streetscape was won in July 1853 by Scotsman, Colin Campbell, who created two stone and brick rendered dwellings and a timber workshop at 19, 21 and 23 Hawke. He was quickly followed a week later by Thomas Stevens who built four wooden cottages on the corner of Hawke and King Streets. Steven’s wooden dwellings were later replaced in 1920 by S. J. Marshall’s architect- designed pharmaceutical laboratory while Campbell’s buildings were demolished in 1972 when the three-storey red brick Miami hotel was created in their place.

In the 1890s, the Hawke residential streetscape began to slowly change with the introduction of industry. The largest of the early industrial buildings that had moved out of Melbourne’s CBD, made its new home on the corner of Hawke and Adderley Streets.  It was designed by architects Oakden, Addison & Kemp and built in 1889 by John Dunton for Brisco & Co. who were cast iron merchants of Elizabeth Street Melbourne.

At the most southern end, an 1868 resident and engineer, Gideon James, and his wife Catherine, once lived at 207 Hawke while Gideon operated the Avon Tool Works business located next door at 199 Hawke until 1909. Their double- fronted Victorian home and garden and nearby workshop both were demolished in the 1920s and replaced by a two-storey red brick industrial building that has since been converted into 12 townhouses.

The southern end of the Hawke streetscape in the late 1860s was also home to a handful of important greengrocer and butcher shops. Among their owners were names such as James Ibbetson, William Wood, and Mrs. Mary Ann Smith.

In 1881, the streetscape continued to change with the arrival of Miss. J. Hutchinson’s mantle & underclothing factory at 96 Hawke, and Francis Gillman, who lived and operated a boot factory at 62 Hawke. The streetscape continued evolving when both Victorian period homes and workshops were demolished and replaced Number 96 is now a park and number 62 is a modern red and cream brick construction built in the 1980s.

Following World War Two, the Hawke streetscape received a rush of extra industrial buildings, from the Spencer Street corner southwards. These factories made all manner of items from electric batteries to spark plugs and baby carriages, marketed nationwide.

In 1895, the street contained 89 Victorian era dwellings. Seven Federation dwellings followed soon after. As of 2022, Hawke Street has lost 43 heritage dwellings, removed from its streetscape forever.

Without stronger heritage protection laws, by the year 2150, the number of heritage dwellings in this streetscape potentially could face total obliteration.

The remaining historic dwellings on Hawke Street are important to the area because they are socially and historically significant buildings that retain private back yard gardens and they relate directly to the early development of West Melbourne.

The Hawke streetscape today contains a collection of outstanding Victorian and Federation dwellings, which are a particularly well-preserved group from important architectural periods in time. These dwellings are interspersed by some industrial buildings, with two early hotels predominantly on the southern side south of the Hawke and Spencer Street intersection.

The North and West Melbourne Precinct is of historical, social, and aesthetic/architectural significance to the local residents and to the City of Melbourne. It is of historical significance, as a predominantly Victorian-era precinct associated with the nineteenth century growth of Melbourne to its north and west.

The residents living in the heritage dwellings along the streetscape are impacted by a push to increase residential density through conversions of the two to three storey red brick industrial buildings into six to eight story blocks of flats, blocks that offer little or no onsite car parking or onsite garden space.

It is imperative existing heritage regulations within the wider built environment be strengthened and laws be strictly followed. All development that occurs in future on Hawke Street ought to be architecturally respectful of the existing style, low scale heights and the hand-crafted materials utilised in keeping with the historic style.

Some might say the residents of Hawke Street and the surrounding streets of greater Melbourne owe a debt of gratitude to the wise Victorian settlers who created the beautiful terrace homes found along these streetscapes of today.

Other Information

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