43 Hawke Street

43 Hawke Street
West Melbourne VIC 3003
photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

Also known as Kipling’s row house Source: Bill Cook’s Amendment 258 Panel submission
Previous Address 23 Hawke Street (before 1889) Source: Hatcher Index
Constructed 1870 and 30/9/1878
Style Victorian, Late: 1875-1901
Builder Crawford and Anderson of Elizabeth Street North then Frederick Wittpan of 302 Rathdown Street North Carlton

Timelapse Building Images


House façade refurbished 2o18 -19. Heritage colours of coral, cream around the windows and terracotta downpipes, roof and timber enclosing lacework. Lacework similar to that featured on 45  replaced the wrought iron. Front brick  fence configured to match the house façade.

Bill Cook




photographer: Graeme Butler

Land Details

1895 MMBW map.

source: http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/

Building Details

1870 1st building constructed by Crawford and Anderson of Elizabeth Street North. Building application number 3743.

Other work carried out by the same builder is listed below.

1 – 5
Architects Building Type
72687 Henry, – West Melbourne VIC Shops Crawford & Anderson – Melbourne 1869 08 17 3395
77291 Woodham, – West Melbourne VIC Houses Crawford & Anderson – Melbourne 1869 12 21 3629
77294 Cunningham, James West Melbourne VIC Houses Crawford & Anderson – 84 Elizabeth St N 1870 02 16 3743
71966 Welch, W H Melbourne VIC Warehouses Crawford & Anderson – 84 Elizabeth nth 1870 04 27 3879
77691 Mason, James Melbourne VIC Houses; Shops Crawford & Anderson – 84 Elizabeth St Nth 1872 05 8 4809

1878 alterations to an existing building executed by Frederick Wittpan of 302 Rathdown Street North Carlton.

Other work carried out by the same builder is listed below.

1 – 1
Architects Building Type
78241 Wittpan, Frederick Carlton VIC Houses Wittpan, Frederick 1877 07 24 7280

PROV and https://www.mileslewis.net/australian-architectural

Subsequent Building Alterations

Cast Iron lacework reinstated in 2018.

photographer: Bill Cook

Architectural Features

  • Fin Wall

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Building Ornamentation
    Cast Iron

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Fin Wall

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Balcony
    Cast Iron

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Balcony

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Balcony

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Windows

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Windows

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Building Ornamentation
    Cast Iron

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

  • Fence

    Photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

Heritage Significance and Listings

Heritage Listings and Explanatory Notes

How is it significant?

  • Cunningham and Kipling’s house is significant historically and aesthetically to West Melbourne.

Why is it significant?

  • Historically representative of a major growth period in West Melbourne.
  • Aesthetically for the ornate façade detailing, its siting within the streetscape, and as contributory to a significant Victorian –era streetscape.


From To Owner More Info Data Source
1975 to date Private Hatcher Index
1969 1974 Charles & Censina Engerer Hatcher Index
1964 1968 Paul Camilleri Hatcher Index
1948 1963 Louisa Emelia Snow Hatcher Index
1924 1947 Maurice S. Freeman Hatcher Index
1900 1923 Henry Kipling Estate Hatcher Index
1877 1899 Henry Kipling Hatcher Index
1872 1876 James Cunningham Hatcher Index
1853 1870 Thomas Allison and A. H. Knight purchased land Hatcher Index
abt 40 thousand years earlier 1835 Boon Wurrung and Woiwurrung (Wurundjeri) peoples of the Kulin Nation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Victoria Hatcher Index


From To Resident More Info Data Source
1975 to date Private Hatcher Index
1969 1974 Charles and Censina Engerer Hatcher Index
1968 1968 Ivan Claughorn Hatcher Index
1965 1967 Frank Sumner Hatcher Index
1964 1964 Carmel Ryano Hatcher Index
1946 1963 Louisa Emelia Snow Hatcher Index
1930 1945 Mrs. May Peters (as a guest house) http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4241554 Hatcher Index
1929 1929 Patrick McNamara http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3958533 Hatcher Index
1928 1928 Alaxander McAdam Hatcher Index
1927 1927 Frederick Rowlands Hatcher Index
1924 1926 William Dudley Hatcher Index
1917 1923 James and Delia Bridget White, nee Kennedy http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article196650559 Hatcher Index
1906 1916 Herbert T. Cork Hatcher Index
1903 1905 John Cork Hatcher Index
1900 1902 William Jeffley Hatcher Index
1898 1899 John Arthur Hatcher Index
1896 1896 Ellen Bersiker Hatcher Index
1895 1895 Mrs. Ellen Cottier Hatcher Index
1891 1891 Mrs. Harriet Platt (as a boarding house) http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article103234066 Hatcher Index
1890 1890 Henry Kipling Hatcher Index
1889 1889 Henry Lewis Hatcher Index
1878 1888 Henry and Jane Kipling http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8541831 Hatcher Index
1876 1877 Henry Kipling & James Cunningham Hatcher Index & Sands McDougall directory
1871 1875 James and Janet Cunningham, nee Hair http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5776329 Hatcher Index

Social History


The Herald


The Age


The Age


The Age


The Argus


The Argus


The Argus


The Argus


The Argus

Context and Streetscape

This property resides within the municipality of the City of Melbourne. We respectfully acknowledge it is on the traditional land of the Kulin Nation.
source: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/history-city-of-melbourne.pdf
historical map source: https://www.slv.vic.gov.au/search-discover/explore-collections-format/maps/maps-melbourne-city-suburbs

This information must be verified with the relevant planning or heritage authority.


Hawke Street and the surrounding streetscapes in part, were indirectly influenced by news about the discovery of Gold by Dunlop and Regan in Victoria at Poverty Point, Ballarat in 1851. News of that find led to a great influx of migrants arriving in old Melbourne, seeking fortune and a better life, but housing in old Melbourne was in short supply. The sheer volume of arrivals led to pressure on authorities to expand the size of the colonial settlement, described by Albert Mattingley in his recollections of The Early History of North Melbourne, in 1916.

In 1852, government surveyor Charles Laing’s ‘Plan of the City of Melbourne and its Extension Northwards’ helped alleviate dramatically the pressure for more housing.

Vacant building allotments were pegged, surveyed, and allocated for sale towards the north, on La-Trobe, Adderley, Jeffcott, Spencer, Batman, King, Dudley, Rosslyn, Stanley, Roden and Hawke Street. Blocks of land were auctioned, with Hawke Street land first offered for sale in May, 1853.

By October 1853, W.M. Tennent wrote in the Argus newspaper:

 “Hawke Street is most desirably situated, is in a most healthy and elevated position and commands extensive views of the shipping in the bay and of all surrounding districts”

The race to be the first to have an influence on Hawke streetscape was won in July 1853 by Scotsman, Colin Campbell, who created two stone and brick rendered dwellings and a timber workshop at 19, 21 and 23 Hawke. He was quickly followed a week later by Thomas Stevens who built four wooden cottages on the corner of Hawke and King Streets. Steven’s wooden dwellings were later replaced in 1920 by S. J. Marshall’s architect- designed pharmaceutical laboratory while Campbell’s buildings were demolished in 1972 when the three-storey red brick Miami hotel was created in their place.

In the 1890s, the Hawke residential streetscape began to slowly change with the introduction of industry. The largest of the early industrial buildings that had moved out of Melbourne’s CBD, made its new home on the corner of Hawke and Adderley Streets.  It was designed by architects Oakden, Addison & Kemp and built in 1889 by John Dunton for Brisco & Co. who were cast iron merchants of Elizabeth Street Melbourne.

At the most southern end, an 1868 resident and engineer, Gideon James, and his wife Catherine, once lived at 207 Hawke while Gideon operated the Avon Tool Works business located next door at 199 Hawke until 1909. Their double- fronted Victorian home and garden and nearby workshop both were demolished in the 1920s and replaced by a two-storey red brick industrial building that has since been converted into 12 townhouses.

The southern end of the Hawke streetscape in the late 1860s was also home to a handful of important greengrocer and butcher shops. Among their owners were names such as James Ibbetson, William Wood, and Mrs. Mary Ann Smith.

In 1881, the streetscape continued to change with the arrival of Miss. J. Hutchinson’s mantle & underclothing factory at 96 Hawke, and Francis Gillman, who lived and operated a boot factory at 62 Hawke. The streetscape continued evolving when both Victorian period homes and workshops were demolished and replaced Number 96 is now a park and number 62 is a modern red and cream brick construction built in the 1980s.

Following World War Two, the Hawke streetscape received a rush of extra industrial buildings, from the Spencer Street corner southwards. These factories made all manner of items from electric batteries to spark plugs and baby carriages, marketed nationwide.

In 1895, the street contained 89 Victorian era dwellings. Seven Federation dwellings followed soon after. As of 2022, Hawke Street has lost 43 heritage dwellings, removed from its streetscape forever.

Without stronger heritage protection laws, by the year 2150, the number of heritage dwellings in this streetscape potentially could face total obliteration.

The remaining historic dwellings on Hawke Street are important to the area because they are socially and historically significant buildings that retain private back yard gardens and they relate directly to the early development of West Melbourne.

The Hawke streetscape today contains a collection of outstanding Victorian and Federation dwellings, which are a particularly well-preserved group from important architectural periods in time. These dwellings are interspersed by some industrial buildings, with two early hotels predominantly on the southern side south of the Hawke and Spencer Street intersection.

The North and West Melbourne Precinct is of historical, social, and aesthetic/architectural significance to the local residents and to the City of Melbourne. It is of historical significance, as a predominantly Victorian-era precinct associated with the nineteenth century growth of Melbourne to its north and west.

The residents living in the heritage dwellings along the streetscape are impacted by a push to increase residential density through conversions of the two to three storey red brick industrial buildings into six to eight story blocks of flats, blocks that offer little or no onsite car parking or onsite garden space.

It is imperative existing heritage regulations within the wider built environment be strengthened and laws be strictly followed. All development that occurs in future on Hawke Street ought to be architecturally respectful of the existing style, low scale heights and the hand-crafted materials utilised in keeping with the historic style.

Some might say the residents of Hawke Street and the surrounding streets of greater Melbourne owe a debt of gratitude to the wise Victorian settlers who created the beautiful terrace homes found along these streetscapes of today.

Other Information


Copyright status: This work is in copyright.
Conditions of use: Use of this work allowed provided the creators name and Hotham History Project Inc are acknowledged.

If you or someone you know has any more to add either by old photos or stories of this area, please contact us today. Email info@hothamhistory.org.au