47 Hawke Street

47 Hawke Street
West Melbourne VIC 3003
photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

Also known as Avon House (45 & 47) Source: The Age 4/5/1908
Previous Address 27 Hawke Street (before 1889) Source: Hatcher Index
Constructed 16/ 05/ 1876
Style Victorian : 1840-1890
Builder Cockram & Connely (later T Cockram & Co) of O’Connell Street North Melbourne

Timelapse Building Images



Sometime between 1882 to 1909

Avon Terrace.
Held by State Library of Victoria.
Source / Donor
Gift; Miss J. T. Radford; 1989.

“Avon House.” 1870, handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/379288.


Land Details

1895 MMBW map.

Building Details

Owner and builder: Cockram & Connely (later T Cockram & Co) of O’Connell Street North Melbourne

1876 Melbourne City Council building application registration no 6753.

Architects Building Type
74246 Baker, George Melbourne VIC Houses; Shops Cockram & Harding – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1872 05 27 4841
75125 Browne, George Johnston, – Melbourne VIC Shops; alterations Cockram & Harding – Melbourne 1872 06 15 4879
77340 Hedford, E West Melbourne VIC Factories Cockram, T – 86 Connell St Hotham 1872 09 22 5020
76807 Dawson, – Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram & Harding – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1872 10 1 5041
75130 Wood, Thomas Melbourne VIC Shops Cockram & Harding – Melbourne 1873 01 25 5211
74482 Coates, Walter Melbourne VIC alterations Cockram & Harding 1873 02 24 5270
76808 Jones, – Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram & Harding 1873 02 25 5273
73074 Jones & Co Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram, T 1873 06 10 5440
73174 Davidson, A Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram & Harding 1873 06 30 5462
76144 Neave, Robert Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram, Thos. & Co – Connell St Hotham 1875 06 8 6367
76828 Russell & Gillespie Melbourne VIC Factories Cockram & Co – 8 O’Connell St 1875 12 8 6581
77311 Cockram & Connely West Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram & Connely 1876 05 16 6753
81516 Denis, V East Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram, Thom & Co – 8 O’Connell St 1876 06 15 6789
83213 Emery, W South Yarra VIC Houses Cockram, T & Co 1877 08 23 7321
74535 Ellerker, W H Victorian Permanent Fire Insurance Co Melbourne VIC alterations Cockram, Thomas & Co 1879 04 22 7962
76841 Twentyman, – Baptist Church Trustees Melbourne VIC Religious Buildings Cockram, Thomas & Co 1879 11 17 8170
72817 Wilson, P J West Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram, Thos & Co – 86 Connell St Hotham 1880 05 19 8368
71910 Stedeford, T Melbourne VIC Shops Cockram, Thos & Co 1880 06 7 8390
82877 Cockram, T Parkville VIC Houses Cockram, T – 4 Peel St Hotham 1880 08 31 8493
77383 Twentyman McWalters, – West Melbourne VIC Cockram, T – 4 Peel St Hotham 1880 09 24 8527
71911 Stedeford, – West Melbourne VIC Houses; Shops Cockram, Thomas & Co 1880 10 12 8541
71912 Stedeford, J W – 11 Howard St West Melbourne VIC Shops Cockram & Connelly 1880 11 1 8572
78458 Powell, Levi Boddington, R Carlton VIC Houses Cockram, T – 4 Peel St 1880 11 29 8597
74550 Beaney, Dr Melbourne VIC Houses Cockram, Thos & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1881 08 17 8887
82883 Shinar, – Parkville VIC Houses Cockram, Thos. – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1882 06 7 9231
72541 Webb, C Nipper & Lee Melbourne VIC Hotels Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’connell St Hotham 1883 02 2 161
73178 Webb, C Nipper & Lee Melbourne VIC Hotels Cockram, Thos, & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1883 07 25 396
78888 Fraisin, – ? Nicholson, – Carlton VIC Houses Cockram, Thos & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1884 09 9 1073
83238 Webb, C Alfred Hospital South Yarra VIC Office Buildings; alterations Cockram, Thos. & Co – 8 O’Commell St Hotham 1885 04 1 1436
76319 Salway,- Wertheim, H Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram, Thos & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1885 06 3 1555
74601 Ellerker, Kilburn & Pitt Federal Coffee Palace – Coffee Tavern Co Melbourne VIC Hotels N Kingston – Mary St Richmond (foundations) Cockram, T & Co to complete (8 Jan 1887) 1886 04 13 2116
73180 Pitt, W Williamson & Co Melbourne VIC Theatres Cockram, T & Co – Park St Parkville 1886 04 6 2104
79229 James, B Nicolson, W H Carlton VIC Houses Cockram, T – Park St Parkville 1886 07 26 2301
82936 Glasscock, George Parkville VIC Interiors; Sports Buildings Fraser & Cockram – Fitzgibbon St 1886 08 2 2325
73848 D’Ebro, – City Property Co Melbourne VIC Shops; Warehouses Cockram, Thos & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hoth. 1886 10 26 2499
74621 Pitt, William Pitt, William Melbourne VIC Office Buildings; Warehouses Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1888 01 4 3203
75172 De Ebro, Charles McLean Bros & Rigg Melbourne VIC Office Buildings; Shops Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1888 07 10 3515
79461 Pitt & De Laey Evans Lachel Bros, Dennis Bros & Co Carlton VIC Shops Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1888 07 4 3508
74628 Wight & Lucas Mercantile Banking Co Melbourne VIC Banks Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Hotham 1888 10 16 3642
76348 Pitt, William Dynon, J & Sons Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1889 10 23 4182
74857 Webb, Charles Benjamin, S Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1889 10 31 4196
83024 Koch, – Mehrtens, H Parkville VIC Shops; alterations Cockram, T & Son – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1890 04 9 4400
71574 Wharton & Down Benjamin, Sir Benjamin, and others Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram, T & Sons – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1890 06 17 4501
76460 Pitt, W Allee, late J – Trustees Melbourne VIC Warehouses Cockram, T & Son – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1891 01 8 4799
74641 D’Ebro & Speight Speight & Fallon Melbourne VIC Office Buildings; Warehouses Cockram, T & Son – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb 1891 03 6 4881
80723 Tayler, Lloyd & Fitts Metropolitan Fire Brigade Board East Melbourne VIC Fire Stations Cockram, T & Co – 8 O’Connell St Nth Melb

source: https://www.mileslewis.net/australian-architectural

Subsequent Building Alterations

47 Hawke Street home was significantly altered when compared to the original photo from 1882 above.

Bart Borg who owned the house from 1966 said a previous owner, Joseph Halik, carried out renovations and changed the home to what it is today.

The alterations made to the facade appear to have been done in the late 1950’s, looking at the style of the ironwork on the fence, front gate, security door and balcony railings.

The late 1950’s alterations can be undone and this home could be restored back to what originally looked like when it was first built, using the original 1882 photo, donated by Miss J. T. Radford in 1989 to the State Library of Victoria as helpful a guide.

Architectural Features

  • Chimney

  • Building Ornamentation

Heritage Significance and Listings

Heritage Listings and Explanatory Notes

The original version of this home was a double story brick cement rendered and painted mid Victorian style terrace home built in the “Filigree” style, a style distinguished through use of cast iron ornament, with a level paved area in front on with a deep back yard ideal for a garden and a two story brick shed.

However sometime in the 1950’s or 60’s the home was modernised at the front and kitchen updated.

Given the sympathetic restoration of its twin at number 45 back to its former Victorian grandeur, its easy to see 47 could easily be returned to the original Victorian style by its current owners in the near future which would significantly increase its social, historical, architectural and asset value.


From To Owner More Info Data Source
2017 to date Private Hatcher Index
1966 2018 Bart & Anna Borg Hatcher Index
1950 1966 Joseph & Maria Halik Hatcher Index
1942 1950 Andrea Barrie Hatcher Index
1931 1942 Ellen Christine McGann Hatcher Index
1919 1931 Joseph Fabbri Estate Hatcher Index
1918 1919 Joseph Fabbri Hatcher Index
1909 1918 Mary Johnson Hatcher Index
1888 1909 William Radford’s Trustees Hatcher Index
1882 1888 William Radford http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/379288 Hatcher Index
1877 1882 William Comely Hatcher Index
1877 1877 Cockram & Connelly (builder) The Age, 18/5/1877
1853 1876 Thomas Allison and A. H. Knight purchased land Hatcher Index
abt 40 thousand years earlier 1835 Boon Wurrung and Woiwurrung (Wurundjeri) peoples of the Kulin Nation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Victoria Hatcher Index


From To Resident More Info Data Source
2017 to date Private Hatcher Index
1974 2017 Bart Borg Hatcher Index
1966 1974 Bart & Anna Borg Hatcher Index
1954 1966 Joseph & Maria Halik Hatcher Index
1931 1954 Mrs. Ellen Christine McGann, nee Bourke http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article205382819 Hatcher Index
1930 1931 Mrs. Jones Hatcher Index
1928 1930 Frederick Rowlands Hatcher Index
1921 1928 Caterina Gardini Hatcher Index
1920 1921 Caterina Gardini & Knight Hatcher Index
1909 1918 Mary Johnson Hatcher Index
1905 1909 Samuel & Catherine Thompson (nee Cahill) http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article197341210 Hatcher Index
1903 1905 Bridget Clifford Hatcher Index
1902 1903 Bridget Loughnan Hatcher Index
1900 1902 Emily Wetherill (Boarding house) Michael Chamberlin resident in 1901. Hatcher Index and Chamberlin marriage certificate #1719
1898 1899 Fredrick Dale Hatcher Index
1896 1897 Frederick Morgan Hatcher Index
1889 1896 Adam Whelan, Miss M Whelan Hatcher Index
1887 1889 Mrs. Elizabeth Radford Hatcher Index
1882 1887 William Radford, tinsmith http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article174571868 Hatcher Index
1880 1882 Fred Hitchins Hatcher Index
1878 1880 William Halliday Hatcher Index
1877 1878 William Comely http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article198307235 Hatcher Index

Social History


The Argus


The Age


The Argus


The Argus


The Herald


The Age

In 1901 Michael Chamberlin was living at 47 Hawke Street West Melbourne at the time he was married.

source: Chamberlin marriage record


The Age


Melbourne Punch


The Argus


The Argus


The Age


The Argus


The Argus

Context and Streetscape

This property resides within the municipality of the City of Melbourne. We respectfully acknowledge it is on the traditional land of the Kulin Nation.
source: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/history-city-of-melbourne.pdf
historical map source: https://www.slv.vic.gov.au/search-discover/explore-collections-format/maps/maps-melbourne-city-suburbs

This information must be verified with the relevant planning or heritage authority.


Hawke Street and the surrounding streetscapes in part, were indirectly influenced by news about the discovery of Gold by Dunlop and Regan in Victoria at Poverty Point, Ballarat in 1851. News of that find led to a great influx of migrants arriving in old Melbourne, seeking fortune and a better life, but housing in old Melbourne was in short supply. The sheer volume of arrivals led to pressure on authorities to expand the size of the colonial settlement, described by Albert Mattingley in his recollections of The Early History of North Melbourne, in 1916.

In 1852, government surveyor Charles Laing’s ‘Plan of the City of Melbourne and its Extension Northwards’ helped alleviate dramatically the pressure for more housing.

Vacant building allotments were pegged, surveyed, and allocated for sale towards the north, on La-Trobe, Adderley, Jeffcott, Spencer, Batman, King, Dudley, Rosslyn, Stanley, Roden and Hawke Street. Blocks of land were auctioned, with Hawke Street land first offered for sale in May, 1853.

By October 1853, W.M. Tennent wrote in the Argus newspaper:

 “Hawke Street is most desirably situated, is in a most healthy and elevated position and commands extensive views of the shipping in the bay and of all surrounding districts”

The race to be the first to have an influence on Hawke streetscape was won in July 1853 by Scotsman, Colin Campbell, who created two stone and brick rendered dwellings and a timber workshop at 19, 21 and 23 Hawke. He was quickly followed a week later by Thomas Stevens who built four wooden cottages on the corner of Hawke and King Streets. Steven’s wooden dwellings were later replaced in 1920 by S. J. Marshall’s architect- designed pharmaceutical laboratory while Campbell’s buildings were demolished in 1972 when the three-storey red brick Miami hotel was created in their place.

In the 1890s, the Hawke residential streetscape began to slowly change with the introduction of industry. The largest of the early industrial buildings that had moved out of Melbourne’s CBD, made its new home on the corner of Hawke and Adderley Streets.  It was designed by architects Oakden, Addison & Kemp and built in 1889 by John Dunton for Brisco & Co. who were cast iron merchants of Elizabeth Street Melbourne.

At the most southern end, an 1868 resident and engineer, Gideon James, and his wife Catherine, once lived at 207 Hawke while Gideon operated the Avon Tool Works business located next door at 199 Hawke until 1909. Their double- fronted Victorian home and garden and nearby workshop both were demolished in the 1920s and replaced by a two-storey red brick industrial building that has since been converted into 12 townhouses.

The southern end of the Hawke streetscape in the late 1860s was also home to a handful of important greengrocer and butcher shops. Among their owners were names such as James Ibbetson, William Wood, and Mrs. Mary Ann Smith.

In 1881, the streetscape continued to change with the arrival of Miss. J. Hutchinson’s mantle & underclothing factory at 96 Hawke, and Francis Gillman, who lived and operated a boot factory at 62 Hawke. The streetscape continued evolving when both Victorian period homes and workshops were demolished and replaced Number 96 is now a park and number 62 is a modern red and cream brick construction built in the 1980s.

Following World War Two, the Hawke streetscape received a rush of extra industrial buildings, from the Spencer Street corner southwards. These factories made all manner of items from electric batteries to spark plugs and baby carriages, marketed nationwide.

In 1895, the street contained 89 Victorian era dwellings. Seven Federation dwellings followed soon after. As of 2022, Hawke Street has lost 43 heritage dwellings, removed from its streetscape forever.

Without stronger heritage protection laws, by the year 2150, the number of heritage dwellings in this streetscape potentially could face total obliteration.

The remaining historic dwellings on Hawke Street are important to the area because they are socially and historically significant buildings that retain private back yard gardens and they relate directly to the early development of West Melbourne.

The Hawke streetscape today contains a collection of outstanding Victorian and Federation dwellings, which are a particularly well-preserved group from important architectural periods in time. These dwellings are interspersed by some industrial buildings, with two early hotels predominantly on the southern side south of the Hawke and Spencer Street intersection.

The North and West Melbourne Precinct is of historical, social, and aesthetic/architectural significance to the local residents and to the City of Melbourne. It is of historical significance, as a predominantly Victorian-era precinct associated with the nineteenth century growth of Melbourne to its north and west.

The residents living in the heritage dwellings along the streetscape are impacted by a push to increase residential density through conversions of the two to three storey red brick industrial buildings into six to eight story blocks of flats, blocks that offer little or no onsite car parking or onsite garden space.

It is imperative existing heritage regulations within the wider built environment be strengthened and laws be strictly followed. All development that occurs in future on Hawke Street ought to be architecturally respectful of the existing style, low scale heights and the hand-crafted materials utilised in keeping with the historic style.

Some might say the residents of Hawke Street and the surrounding streets of greater Melbourne owe a debt of gratitude to the wise Victorian settlers who created the beautiful terrace homes found along these streetscapes of today.

Other Information


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