73 Jeffcott Street

73 Jeffcott Street
West Melbourne VIC 3003
photographer: Stephen Hatcher, 2019

Also known as Caledonian Hotel, also known as 67-73 Jeffcott Street
Previous Address 33 Jeffcott Street Source: Sands & McDougall directory
Constructed 1854
Style Victorian, Early : 1840-1860
Architect John Walker. Offices of Vaughan and Wild, Bear’s Exchange, 66 Queen Street Melbourne.
Builder William Sturgess, later known as Downie & Sturgess

Timelapse Building Images


73 Jeffcott Street West Melbourne.



Caledonian Hotel


Land Details

  1. 1895 MMBW Street plan.

source: http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/index.html Historic Maps section.

  1. 2. 1850. The Compiled Crown Record Plan shows the first purchaser of the section of land in the city of Melbourne, in the parish of North Melbourne, county of Bourke and colony of Victoria, being part of allotment No. 18 of section No. 33 was Mr. James Murray however on the Argus newspaper report of 17th May 1850 it states that section was purchased by Mr. John Aitken.

Building Details

Wanted 300 perches of rubble stone, delivered. Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street.

The Argus 1854

Notice of Intent to Build.

6th September 1853, Registration number 1526.
Fee paid: £4.0.0
Builder: Mr. William Sturgess, 1 Miller Street West Melbourne.
Owner: Mr Valance.

Other significant building works carried out by William Sturgess can be found here.

Burchett Index

source: The Burchett index VPRS 9288

Subsequent Building Alterations

Two co-joined two storey brick former warehouses. Refurbished and sub-divided into two office units in 1995.

The planning application listed below relate to this property and has been determined:


Architectural Features

Heritage Significance and Listings

Heritage Listings and Explanatory Notes

This building has highly valuable historical cultural and social significance as it was used on multiple occasions over its time as a meeting place by large numbers of residents and Councillors living in the Bourke Ward of Melbourne and by political candidates campaigning in local and state electoral positions in Melbourne.

Heritage Council of Victoria.



Level of significanceHeritage Inventory Site

Heritage Inventory (HI) NumberH7822-2085

Heritage Listing

Victorian Heritage Inventory

Statement of Significance

Last updated on –

This place is included on the Victorian Heritage Inventory, for its potential to contain historical archaeological remains associated with the settlement and growth of early Melbourne. Under the terms of the Heritage Act 2017 there is protection for all historical archaeologysites and objects in the state.

Please visit the Heritage Victoria website to find out more about the Heritage Inventory.

source: https://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/9998/download-report


From To Owner More Info Data Source
2013 Western Institute of Technology (trading as Western Senior Secondary College) Australian Financial Review, 30th May 2013
2013 Clark Toop & Taylor, compensation lawyers Australian Financial Review, 30th May 2013
1965 1974 Glen Will Australia Pty Ltd Council Rates Books 1965-74
1954 1964 John Sands Pty Ltd Melbourne Council Rate Books
1922 1953 Art Production Pty Ltd Council Rates Books 1922-53
1920 1921 Edward & Elizabeth Turner Council Rates Books 1920-21
1918 1919 Julia Morgan & K. McCarthy Council Rates Books 1918-19
1897 1917 Carlton Brewery Coy Council Rates Books 1897-17
1895 1896 Carlton & Terry’s West End Brewery Council Rates Book 1896
1885 1895 Terry’s West End Brewery Council Rates Books 1885-95
1859 1884 John Pinney Bear M.L.A. Council Rates Books 1861-84 & The Argus 1859
1853 1859 William (1825-1901) & Catherine Vallance née Donague (1828-1914) 1857 Sands & McDougall Directory & Ancestry


From To Resident More Info Data Source
1971 1974 Melbourne Metropolitan Board of Works (printing division) 1974 Sands & McDougall Directory & council rates book
1970 1970 vacant Council rates book
1969 1969 Impress Printers Council rates book
1967 1968 David Hamill Council rates book
1965 1966 vacant Council rate books
1954 1964 John Sands Pty Ltd Melbourne Council Rate Books
1921 1953 Art Productions Pty Ltd 1925 Sands & McDougall Directory & council rate books
1919 1920 Eileen McKenzie Council rates book
1905 1918 Mrs Julia Morgan née McCarthy (1881-1968) wife of James Morgan 1915 Sands & McDougall Directory & Council Rates books
1902 1904 Catherine McCarthy (transfer of license from Catherine Finn) Mother to daughter. The Argus, 4th April 1901.
1896 1902 Mr James and Mrs Catherine Theresa Finn née McCarthy (1872-1901) 1900 Sands & McDougall Directory
1895 1895 Mrs Margaret O’Brien Sands & McDougall Directories
1890 1895 William O’Donnell Melbourne Council Rate Book
1887 1890 William Fanning Sands & McDougall Directories & Rates books
1885 1885 Edward L West Sands & McDougall Directories
1884 1884 Patrick Fitzgerald Melbourne Council Rate Book
1880 1880 Mrs Johanna Mary Ralph née Smith (abt1873-1880) Sands & McDougall Directories & Ancestry
1879 1879 Mrs Bridget Cruise-Buckley née Colgan (abt1830-1903) Sands & McDougall Directories & Ancestry
1877 1878 Michael Cox Sands & McDougall Directories & The Herald 5/6/1877
1868 1877 Rody Ryan Sands & McDougall Directories
1866 1867 Michael Stapleton The Argus 1867 4th Oct
1861 1866 William (1806-1869) & Eliza Richardson née Berry (1821-1878) https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/5770554/215348 1862 Sands & McDougall & Ancestry
1860 1861 James Cleghorn 1860 Sands & McDougall
1853 1859 William (1825-1901) & Catherine Vallance née Donague (1828-1914) and family BDM Vic & Sands & McDougall 1859

Social History

1954 to 1964, Melbourne Council Rate Books show John Sands Pty Ltd owned the 73 Jeffcott street property, they operated business activities in the building.

The business named ‘John Sands’ was founded in Sydney, Australia by a 19 year old English immigrant John Sands in 1837.

He began building his publishing and stationery business in George Street, Sydney and in 1881, John Sands introduced the first Christmas and New Year’s Day greeting cards to be produced by an Australian printer, an idea that would endure throughout the decades. Through the years games, magazines and book publishing joined the original stationery product line, including maps for the defence effort during WW2!

The John Sands Family relinquished control of the company after 141 years in 1978. Acquired by American Greetings in 1996, John Sands has retained its name and became part of the global company.

source: https://johnsands.com/about/

1938 The Age. Advertising.

Machinists. Experienced: Apprentices, soft furnishings. Art Prouction, Jeffcott off Spencer Street.

The Age 1938

Following the delicensing of the Caledonian Hotel, it’s owner Mrs Catherine McCarthy sadly passed away.

The Age 1917

Caledonian Hotel delicensed and sold in 1916 for £650

The Herald 1916 Dec 21st

Transfer of hotel license to Catherine McCarthy from Catherine Theresa Finn.

The Argus 1901

1890 The Argus. Metropolitan Licensing Court.

Transfer of Caledonian Hotel licence from William Farning to William O’Donnell.

The Argus 1890

1885, Albert Terry purchased the Caledonian Hotel in Jeffcott street as landlord but the property was later transferred to the Carlton Brewery Co. around 1896 following the collapse of the Melbourne land boom during the 1890’s.

Albert Terry owned West End Brewery in Melbourne during the late 1800’s.

The original West End Brewery, started by Glynn & Co at 135 Flinders Street West, was taken over by Albert Terry in 1875.

While still operating this brewery, he purchased the Artillery Brewery at Williamstown, and in 1883 he formed West End Breweries Ltd, which acquired the assets of both breweries.

source: Breweries of Australia by Keith Deutsher

Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), Monday 28 October 1889, page 5

DEATH OF MR. J. P. BEAR, EX M.L.C. and owner of the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street West Melbourne.

We have received information of the death of Mr John Pinney Bear, formerly a member of the legislative Council, which took place at Tahbilk, on the Goulburn River, at 1 o’clock yesterday morning.

For many years Mr Bear has lived in retirement but all old colonists who remember the part he once took in public affairs will regret to hear of his decease.

He was born at Tiverton, Devonshire, in 1823, and was a very old colonist, having arrived in Victoria with his family in 1841.

His father entered into business as a stock and station agent and horse salesman in Melbourne, the firm being known as John Bear and Son.

On the death of his father Mr J P Bear carried on the business, which had assumed very large proportions. In a comparatively few years he amassed considerable means, and having sold the business, he returned to England, where he remained till about 1860.

On returning to Melbourne he established the Melbourne Banking Company, of which he was managing director for several years, and became largely interested in squatting pursuits, in which he was not uniformly successful.
He afterwards directed his attention to wine growing, and established the Tahbilk Vineyard, which was his property at the time of his death.

In the latter part of 1860 Mr Bear sought election to the Legislative Council, and contested the South Province with the late Mr Hull, but was defeated.

In June, 1803, however, he secured the seat for the South Province vacated by Mr J B Bennett and he continued to represent the same constituency until 1878 when he retired, and was succeeded by Sir W J Clarke.

While a member of Parliament Mr Bear paid two brief visits to England, prosecuting on the last occasion an appeal to the Privy Council in the suit of Stevenson v Bear, in which he was successful.

In 1878 he again proceeded to England, and did not return to the colony until 1888.

His death was due to heart disease. He has left a widow, six daughters, and one son, one of the daughters being married.

The Argus 1889, 28th October

1859/60, John purchased the Caledonian Hotel in 1860 as landlord, he later sold the hotel to Albert Terry of Terry’s West End Brewery in 1884.

Mr John Pinney Bear. M.L.A.

Occupation: Vigneron

Arrived Port Phillip 1841; with father as Bear & Son, auctioneers, stock and station agents and horse salesmen, Melbourne, which he continued after his father’s death in 1851; sold business c1856-1857; went to England, returning 1860; established Melbourne Banking Co., managing director; after unsuccessful squatting ventures established Tahbilk vineyard (today, Tahbilk Winery) on Goulburn River; director National Bank.


1883 The Age. City Licensing Court.

Transfer of Caledonian Hotel licence from Patrick Fitzgerald to Ed A Duffy.

The Age 1883

1882 The Age. News of the day.

Transfer of Caledonian Hotel licence from Francis Barr to Patrick Fitzgerald.

The Age 1882

Sale of Caledonian Hotel by C J and T Ham under instruction to sell at public auction.

The Argus 1882

Francis Barr (Late of Sandhurst) publican of the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street West Melbourne.

First class accommodation. Billard-room, Ales, Wines and Spirits of the Best Brands.

Bendigo Advertiser 1882

Oriel Lee, formerly well known as one of the most respectable publicans in Melbourne was brought up at the City Police Court yesterday for assaulting his wife.

Mrs Lee is now landlady of the Caledonian Hotel in Jeffcott Street, West Melbourne, where her husband has been residing with her.

The Argus 1881

Application for publican’s license, Annie Lee of Jeffcott Street West Melbourne for the Caledonian Hotel.

The Argus 1880

Johanna Mary Smith,at her residence, Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street West Melbourne, after a long and painful illness, relict of the late Henry V Smith. RIP. Deeply regretted by all who knew her.

The Argus 1880

Application for publican’s license, Bridget Buckley of Jeffcott Street West Melbourne for the Caledonian Hotel.

The Argus 1878

1877 The Herald. Publican Transfers.

Transfer of Caledonian Hotel licence from Rody Ryan to Michael Cox.

The Herald 1877

1877 The Herald. Tenders.

The Caledonian Hotel.
Tenders will be received for a lease of three years of the above old established hotel, at present occupied by Mr. Rody Ryan.
Immediate possession.
Mr. J. P. Bear.

The Herald 1877

The Argus 1877 This Day at Twelve O’Clock.

For sale by Auction the Caledonian Hotel by Gemmell, Tuckett and Co.

Title First-class.

The Argus 1877

The Argus 1867.
Publicans’ Licences.
Transfer of Caledonian Hotel licence from Michael Stapleton to Rody Ryan.

The Argus 1867

A Grand Ball and Supper will take place in the Caledonian Hall, Jeffcott Street, on Boxing Night. Double tickets 5s 6d.

The Argus 1864

The Herald, Tue 9 Aug 1864 Page 3, THE PROPOSED TOWN HALL.

A meeting of the citizens of Bourke Ward was held at the Caledonian hotel, Jeffcott street, yesterday evening, “to consider matters of vital importance to every citizen.” The mayor, who presided, said that he was ignorant of the objects sought to be attained by the meeting, and therefore he could give no explanation of what its conveners intended.

Mr J. Richardson then came forward and moved the following resolution :—” That this meeting, viewing with alarm the fiction taken by the City Council in appropriating the fees granted in lieu of the annual Government grant for the streets to banding a town hall, most energetically protests against the same, believing that the forming of the streets ought to be the primary object of the council, instead of sinking the large sum of £15,000 per annum upon building purposes.”

He asserted that the Council had no right to build extensive halls, when so many of the streets, more especially in Bourke Ward, were in a disgraceful condition, and in winter time were almost impassable.

The resolution was seconded by Mr Shields.

The Chairman began an explanation of the course taken by the Council, in order, as he said, to prevent them voting in the dark. Mr Richardson, however, objected to his making a speech. This objection he bowed to, and the resolution was put and carried.

On the motion of Mr A. Short, seconded by Mr Bowen, the representatives of the ward were requested to express their opinions on the subject. The Chairman then said that it was rather late to object to the Town Hall being proceeded with, as the Council had already passed several resolutions in favour of its completion, one so far back as March 1862, and another in Feb. last, appropriating £12,000, received as license fees from the Government, towards carrying out the contract.

This explanation Mr Shields designated as rhodomontade, and totally irrelevant, whereupon the Chairman said that he was in favour of the Town Hall being built, though probably his vote would not be wanted.

Councillor Brown said the suggestions of the meeting were perfectly preposterous, and he would support the Town Hall project. Similar views were enunciated by Councillor Grant, who also said that the streets of the ward would be repaired from the rates levied on the properties.

Councillor Edwards stated that he would give the Council an opportunity of retracing their steps, and would place a motion on the paper for a call of the Council, to consider the propriety of rescinding the resolutions they had adopted. The meeting then became rather disorderly, the Chairman and Messrs Richardson, Bowen, and Shields, maintaining an animated and somewhat personal controversy on the merits and demerit of the case.

At length it was agreed, on the motion of Mr Shields, that a petition embodying the first resolution should be signed by the Chairman on behalf of the meeting. The Mayor said he would sign it “without prejudice;” and after a vote of thanks had been accorded to him, the assemblage, which numbered about fifty persons, dispersed.

The Herald 1864 9th Aug

A Public Meeting of the citizens of Bourke Ward will be held at Richardson’s Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street, to consider matters of vital importance to every citizen. The Councillors of the ward are particularly requested to attend.

The Argus 1864

Councillor Henry Donovan Brown addressed the electors of Bourke Ward last evening, at Richardson’s Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street.

The Argus 1862

Bourke Ward.

The Mayor respectfully requests tile attendance of the ratepayers of the above Ward at a public meeting, to be held at the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street, this evening, at half-past seven o’clock, for the purpose of giving Mr ex-Councillor Phillips, an opportunity of proving the charges made against the Mayor, in his civic capacity, at the meeting of the City Council, held on Wednesday last. Mr Phillips has been respectfully invited to attend.

The AGE 1861

Richardson – On the 1st inst, at the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street. Bernard, the infant son of William and Eliza Richardson, aged three years.

The Argus 1861

Dancing to-night at Richardson’s Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street West Melbourne. Violin and piano commences at 8.

The Argus 1861

A meeting of the burgesses and other residents of Bourke Ward was held last evening, at the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street, North Melbourne, in accordance with an invitation conveyed through the public journals by his Worship the Mayor to Coutnillor Phillips, calling upon the latter gentleman to appear in support of certain charges preferred by him against Mr Smith, at the meeting of the City Council, on Wednesday last. The meeting was advertised for half-past seven, but it was past eight o’clock before the proceedings were actually commenced.

The meeting was numerously attended, and the audience was very noisy and somewhat turbulent otherwise, towards the conclusion so much so, indeed, that at one period there seemed a very reasonable prospect of a “free fight.”

Mr Smith entered the room about eight o’clock, and was received with cheers and some expressions of disapproval; and very shortly afterwards Mr T. H. Hadley was unanimously voted to the chair.

The Argus 1861

Wed 7 Aug 1861, Page 5 The Herald


A meeting of the electors of West Melbourne was held in the Caledonian hotel, Jetreott street, yesterday evening, for the purpose of hearing Mr. Loader in explanation of his political views.

Mr. ALEXANDER CAIRNS occupied the chair, and in introducing the candidate made some observations relative to the necessity for further reductions in the salaries of the civil service, as the reductions that had been effected were not by a long way equal to the reductions that had taken place within the last few years in the wages of the operative classes.

Mr. LOADER in commencing to address the meeting said that he would go in for a further reduction of the salaries of the civil servants, and he believed the Government intended to go in for such reduction also.

The Herald 1861

Dancing at the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street West Melbourne on Tuesday evening.

The Argus 1861

Mr. F. J. Bligh will meet the electors this day (Saturday) at the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street, at seven o’clock.

The Age 1860

Wed 5 Dec 1860 Page 7 DIVISION OF BOURKE WARD.

Last evening a public meeting of the ratepayers of Bourke Ward was held at the Cikledothan Arms hotel, Jtffcott-street, West Melbourne, for the purpose of taking steps to facilitate the division of the ward into two. Mr. SHIELD was called to the chair, and stated the object of the meeting. He said a petition for subdivision had already been submitted to the City Council by Smith Ward, and for that reason it had been deemed necessary to take action. It was only just that Bourke Ward should, from its size, have its fair representation in the City Council. The population and the amount of rateable property in the ward also justified its division into two parts.

Councillor PHILLIPS said that if Smith Ward should succeed in obtaining its subdivision, Bourke Ward would virtually be swamped, so far the principle of representation was concerned. The rates paid by Bourke Ward, together with the lighting rate, amounted to about £1,500 in the year, or nearly three times that of Smith Ward, and the fact furnished a prima facie ground for subdivision. The gradual increase of the amount of rates paid by the ward, both be-

The Argus 1860

Fri 7 Oct 1859 / Page 5 / EIGHT HOURS LABOUR LEAGUE.

Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott-street, October 6.

“Sir, – We are directed by the men lately in your employ at the railway carriage shops, Spencer-street, to inform you that they will have great pleasure is waiting upon you this day, at any hour you may appoint, to ascertain whether you are wilting to carry out your contract on the eight-hours’ system.

“We are further requested to state that, in seeking this interview, they are not prepared to compromise the principles of the eight hours.

“We have the honour to be, Sir,

“Yours respectfully,
” J. H. MORTON, Chairman.
“G. E DEACON, Secretary.
” J. COOK, Treasurer.

After some hours’ delay, Mr. Williams promised to meet a deputation from the men to-morrow afternoon, at 3 o’clock p.m.

The Argus 1859

Caledonian Hotel, in proximity to the Railway Station, Spencer-street.—To LET, with immediate possession, those splendid premises know as the CALEDONIAN HOTEL in Jeffcatt.street, at present in the occupation of Mr. Wm. Vallance. For particulars apply at Mr. J. P. Bear’s offices, 6 Temple Court Melbourne.

The Argus 1859

William Valiance applied for a licence for the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott-street.

The furniture was said to be very deficient, and the landlord reported as uncivil and inattentive to his business.

Mr. F. Stephen said the applicant had struggled hard, after passing through the Insolvent Court.

Licence granted conditionally.

The Argus 1858

1857 Sands & McDougall directory showing Caledonian Hotel located in Jeffcott Street occupied by William Vallance.

Sands & McDougall directory 1857

TENDERS are required for alterations and repairs of the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott street, North Melbourne.

The specification can be seen on the premises, and the architect will attend this day, 13th inst., at 2 o’clock, at the same, to give further particulars.

Tenders to be sent to the office of JOHN WALKER, Architect, 66 Queen street, on or before the 15th inst.

The lowest will not necessarily be accepted.

The Age 1856

Tue 9 Oct 1855 Page 8 Advertising The AGE
Terms—cash. Lot 2.

All that piece or parcel of Land, situate in the city of Melbourne, in the parish of North Melbourne, county of Bourke and colony of Victoria, being part of allotment No. 18 of section No. 33, bounded on the north by Jeffcott street, by a line commencing at a point of 52 feet east from the north west corner of the wild allotment No, 19, bearing east 48 feet or thereabouts, on the east by other parts of the said allotment in a line bearing south 70 feet or thereabouts ; on the south by a right-of-way 12 feet wide (which separates it from allotment No. 19 of said section No. 33) in a line bearing west 49 feet or thereabout ; and on the west by other portion of the said allotment No. 18, in a line bearing north v3 the starting point, 70 feet or thereabouts, be the said several dimensions, or any of them, a little more or less. On this land is erected that very substantial and commodious stone built public -house, known as the Caledonian Hotel, and out-buildings, at present occupied by Mr Wm. Valiance, and a transfer or the license to the purchaser will be recommended if desired. Terms—Cash ; or. the purchaser may have the option of keeping £1200 of the purchase-money secured on the property for three years at 12 & 1/2 per cent. per annum.

The Age 1855

In Insolvent Estates – For sale by tender. Caledonian Hotel.

The Age 1855

Public House for sale.

The argus 1855

1855 Births Notice.
On the morning of the 22nd inst, at her residence, Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street, Mrs William Vallance, of a daughter.

The Argus 1855 23rd June

William Vallance, granted hotel license in 1855.

The Age 1855

Wanted, Masons and good bricklayers. Apply at the Caledonian Hotel.

The Argus

Wanted this day a Young Girl, to take charge of Child one that is useful at needlework. Apply at the Caledonian Hotel.

The Argus 1854

Wanted 300 perches of rubble stone delivered. Apply Caledonian Hotel.

The Argus 1854

William Vallance and Catherine Donague’s children.

William Vallance, born in 1825 in Musselburgh, Midlothian, his father, James, was 49 and his mother, Ann, was 29.

William had eight sons and nine daughters with Catherine Donague between 1854 and 1870. He died on 9 November 1901 in St Arnaud, Victoria, having lived a full life of 76 years.


Sat 4 Jun 1853 / Page 4 / Family Notices The Argus


On Friday, 27th May, 1852, at Melbourne, by the Rev. Thomas Odell, William Valiance, late of Midlothian, to Catherine Donagne, daughter of Michael Donague, ironmonger, of Carbridge, Glamorganshire.

The Argus 1853

1850, 17th May The Argus.

Town Lots Melbourne.

(Upset price, £300 per acre)

Allotment 18 of section 33, John Atkin, £112

The Argus 1850

Early map of Melbourne before 1850 showing the location of Jeffcott Street West Melbourne.


Context and Streetscape


Building was not covered in the Central Activities District Conservation Study conducted by Graeme Butler in 1984.

The building (67 to 73) is currently used as offices.

source: http://maps.melbourne.vic.gov.au/index.html


Other Information


Copyright status: This work is in copyright.
Conditions of use: Use of this work allowed provided the creators name and Hotham History Project Inc are acknowledged.

If you or someone you know has any more to add either by old photos or stories of this area, please contact us today. Email info@hothamhistory.org.au